Chapter 15 – 1st amendment freedoms


Congress shall make no law page 387

1791 1st ten amendments page 387

“first freedoms” page 387

Liberties, freedoms, rights, and privileges 1st amendment page 387

Civil liberties 5th and 14th amendments page 387

Civil rights page 387

Legal privileges page 388


1)     Rights in the original constitution page 388-389

a)     Ex post facto page 388

b)     Writ of habeas corpus page 388

c)      Antiterrorism and effective death penalty act of 1996 page 388

d)     2004 decisions page 388

e)     Ex post facto law page 388

f)        Bills of attainder page 388

2)     The bill of rights and the states page 389-390

a)     Federalist and antifederalist views page 389

b)     Original bill of rights page 389

c)      14th amendment and due process clause page 389

d)     Gitlow v. NY 1925 page 389

e)     Selective incorporation page 389

f)        2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 10th, and14th amendments page 389

g)     New judicial federalism page 389

h)      Most significant constitution development page 389

3)     Freedom of religion page 390-395

a)     1st amendment and congress shall make no law page 390

b)     2 religion clauses – establishment and exercise page 390

c)      The establishment clause page 390-392

i)        Church of England page 390

ii)      3 evils page 390

iii)    Everso v. Education of Ewing Township 1947 page 391

iv)    “wall of separation” page 391

v)      “child’s benefit” page 391

vi)    Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971  page 391

vii)  3 part test – Lemon test page 391

viii)O’Connor and the endorsement test page 391

ix)    Rehnquist, Scalia, Thomas, and non preferentialist test page 391

x)      Souter, Stevens, Ginsberg, Breyer, and strict separation page 392

xi)    Public school authorities page 392

xii)  School prayer page 392

xiii)Creation science page 392

xiv) “under god” page 392

xv)   Elk Grove unified school district v. Newdow 2004 page 392

xvi) “In God We Trust” page 392

d)     Vouchers and state aid for religious schools page 392-393

i)        Vouchers page 393

ii)      Zelman v. Simmons-Harris 2002 page 393

e)     the free exercise clause page 393-395

i)        “no religious test” page 393

ii)      Mantle of protection page 393

iii)    Employment division v. Smith 1990 page 393

iv)    Religious freedom restoration act of 1993 (RFRA) page 394

v)      Wide awake page 394

4)     Free speech and free people page 395-397

a)     Government by the people page 395

b)     Oliver Wendell Holmes page 395

c)      The best of truth page 395

d)     John Stuart Mill page 395

e)     Essay on liberty 1859 page 395

f)        Robert Jackson page 396

g)     Belief, speech and action page 396

h)      Fist and nose page 396

i)        Judging: drawing the line page 396

j)        Historical constitutional tests (3) page 396-397

i)        The bad tendency test page 396

ii)      The clear and present danger test page 396-397

(1)   Holmes page 396

(2)   Schenck v. US 1919 page 396

iii)    The preferred position doctrine 1940’s  page 397

5)     Non protected and protected speech page 397-401

a)     Libel, obscenity, fighting word, commercial speech page 397

b)     Non protected speech page 397

c)      Libel page 397-398

i)        Seditious libel page 397

ii)      Sedition act of 1798 page 397

iii)    Federalists and election of 1800 page 397

iv)    Seditious speech and seditious action page 397

v)      Smith act of 1940 page 398

vi)    1951 – communists page 398

vii)  NY Times v. Sullivan 1964 page 398

viii)Actual malice page 398

ix)    Flynt, Falwell page 398

x)      “results in material change” page 398

xi)    Private persons page 398

d)     Obscenity and pornography page 398

i)        Potter Stewart page 398

ii)      John Marshall Harlan page 398

iii)    Miller v. CA 1973 page 398

iv)    Obscenity defined page 399

v)      Child porn page 399

vi)    “dominant theme” page 399

vii)  Canadian supreme court page 399

e)     Fighting words page 399

i)        Hate speech page 399

ii)      KKK page 399

f)        Commercial speech page 399

i)        44 liquormart, Inc v. RI 1996 page 399

g)     Protected speech 399

h)      Prior restraint page 400

i)        Void for vagueness page 400

j)        Least drastic means page 400

i)        May not impinge on 1st amendment page 400

k)      Content and viewpoint neutrality page 400

i)        St. Paul, MN page 400

6)     Freedom of the press page 401-402

a)     Right of access page 401

b)     Does the press have the right to withhold information? Page 401

i)        Press shield laws page 401

c)      Does the press have the right to know? Page 401-402

i)        Sunshine laws page 401

ii)      Freedom of information act (FOIA) 1966 page 402

iii)    Clinton page 402

iv)    Interagency security classification appeals page 402

v)      Electronic freedom of information act of 1996 page 402

vi)    NASA and UFOs page 402

d)     Free press vs. fair trials page 402

i)        OJ page 402

ii)      OKC bombing page 402

iii)    Gag orders page 402

7)     Other media and communications page 402-404

a)     “the press” page 402

b)     The mails page 402-403

i)        OW Holmes page 402

ii)      Post office and communists page 402

c)      Handbills, sound trucks, and bill boards page 403

d)     Motion pictures and plays page 403

e)     Broadcast and cable communications page 403-406

i)        FCC page 403

ii)      Infinity broadcasting and shock jock Stern page 403

iii)    Telecommunications act of 1996 page 403

iv)    V chip page 403

v)      “patently offensive” page 403

vi)    US v. Playboy entertainment group 2000 page 403

f)        Telecommunications and the internet page 404

i)        State taxation page 404

ii)      Copyright piracy page 404

iii)    Obscene page 404

iv)    1st amendment ruling on internet Reno v. ACLU 1997 page 404

v)      Communication decency act of 1996 page 404

vi)    Child online protection act of 1998 (COPA) page 404

vii)  Child pornography prevention act of 1996 page 404

8)     Freedom of assembly 404-406

a)     Khallid Muhammad and million youth march 1998 page 404

b)     Giuliani page 404

c)      MLK page 404

d)     Ashcroft page 405

e)     Public forums and time, place, and manner regs page 405-406

i)        “reasonable” page 405

ii)      Time, place, and manner regs page 405

iii)    Public forums page 405

iv)    Limited public forums page 406

v)      Non public forums page 406

vi)    Civil disobedience page 406

vii)  Anti abortion protesters page 406

viii)Robert Jackson page 406

ix)    “auxiliary precautions” page 406

x)      Madison page 406


Timeline 1st amendment freedoms page 388

Rights in the original constitution page 389

Selective incorporation and the application of the bill of rights to the states page 390

Does the statement “you can practice your religion freely” describe your country very well? Page 391

Growing religious intensity and polarization page 394

Reverend Anthony Cummins page 394

Ernesto Pichardo page 395

Flag burning pic page 396

Should the bill of rights be amended to prohibit flag burning? Page 398

Larry Flynt page 398

Flag burning as freedom of expression pro and con page 399

Jerry Kilgore VA page 399

Hate speech in Canada page 400

Howard Stern page 403

Protesters pic page 405

Civil liberties – the great balancing act page 406



Writ of habeas corpus – court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody.


Ex post facto law – retroactive criminal law that works to the disadvantage of an individual; forbidden in the constitution


Bill of attainder – legislative act inflicting punishment, including deprivation of property, without a trial, on named individuals or members of a specific group.


Due process clause – clause in the 5th amendment limiting the power of the national government; similar clause in the 14th amendment prohibiting state governments from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.


Establishment clause – clause in the 1st amendment that states that congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. It has been interpreted by the supreme court as forbidding governmental support to any or all religions.


Vouchers – money provided by the government to parents for payment of their children’s tuition in a public or private school of their choice.


Free exercise clause – clause in the 1st amendment that states that congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion.


Bad tendency test – interpretation of the 1st amendment that would permit legislatures to forbid speech encouraging people to engage in illegal action.


Clear and present danger test – interpretation of the 1st amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts. To shout “fire” falsely in a crowded theater is justice Holmes famous example.


Preferred position doctrine – interpretation of the 1st amendment that holds that freedom of expression is so essential to democracy that governments should not punish persons for what they say, only for what they do.


Nonprotected speech – libel, obscenity, fighting words, and commercial speech, which are not entitled to constitution protection in all circumstances.


Libel – written defamation of another person. Especially in the case of public officials and public figures, the constitutional tests designed to restrict libel actions are very rigid.


Sedition – attempting to overthrow the government by force or to interrupt its activities by violence.


Obscenity – quality or state of a work that taken as a whole appeals to a prurient interest in sex by depicting sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and that lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.


Fighting words – words that by their very nature inflict injury on those to whom they are addressed or incite them to acts of violence.


Commercial speech – advertisements and commercials for products and services; they receive less 1st amendment protection, primarily to discourage false and misleading ads.


Prior restraint – censorship imposed before a speech is made or a newspaper is published; usually presumed to be unconstitutional.


Civil disobedience – deliberate refusal to obey a law or comply with the orders of public officials as a means of expressing opposition.




Chapter 16 – rights to life, liberty, and property



9/11 page 410

Due process page 410

Political power can threaten liberty page 410


1)     Citizenship rights page 410-414

a)     Office page 414

b)     How citizenship is acquired and lost page 414

i)        14th amendment 1868 page 410

ii)      Native Americans 1924 page 410

iii)    Naturalization page 410

(1)   Immigration and naturalization service (INS) page 410

(2)   FBI page 410

iv)    Dual citizenship page 410-411

(1)   Right of expatriation page 410

(2)   War of 1812 page 410

(3)   Number eligible to hold citizenship in another country page 411

c)      Rights of American citizens page 411-412

i)        Residence page 411

ii)      Rights flow from state citizenship page 411

iii)    Slaughter house cases 1873 page 411

iv)    Times of war page 411

v)      Lincoln page 411

vi)    Lindh page 411

vii)  Bush page 411

viii)The right to live and travel in the US page 411

(1)   Citizens vs. aliens page 411

ix)    The right to travel abroad page 412

(1)   Passport page 412

(2)   Cuba page 412

d)     Rights of aliens page 412

i)        Enemy alien act of 1798 page 412

ii)      Immigration and naturalization act amended page 412

iii)    All persons page 412

iv)    Benefits page 412

v)      Employment page 412

e)     Admission to the US page 412-413

i)        F. Roosevelt page 412

ii)      The immigration act of 1965 page 412

iii)    Immigration rights page 412

iv)    “millionaire immigrants” page 412

v)      Diversity page 412

vi)    Asylum page 412

vii)  Political refugees page 412

viii)Detention camps page 412

ix)    Coast guard page 412

x)      2000 census and aliens page 412

xi)    Detaining aliens page 412

2)     Property rights page 414

a)     Constitutional protection of property page 414

i)        Property rights page 414

ii)      Legal tender, gold and silver page 414

iii)    Law impairing the obligation of contacts page 414

iv)    Contract clause of article I section 10 page 414

v)      John Marshall page 414

vi)    Police powers page 414

vii)  Supreme court 1934 page 414

b)     What happens when the government takes our property? Page 414

i)        5th amendment and eminent domain page 414

ii)      Regulatory takings page 414

iii)    “just compensation” page 414

3)     Due process rights page 415-416

a)     5th and 14th amendments page 415

b)     Due process of law page 415

c)      Procedural due process page 415

i)        The way in which a law is applied page 415

ii)      Daniel Webster page 415

iii)    Vagueness page 415

iv)    “right of the individual” page 415

d)     Substantive due process page 415

i)        What government should not be allowed to do page 415

ii)      Unreasonable law page 415

iii)    1937 employers/employees page 415

iv)    Labor laws page 415

4)     Privacy rights page 416-418

a)     Griswold v. CT 1965 page 416

b)     3 aspects of this right page 416

c)      Abortion rights page 417

i)        Roe v. Wade 1973 page 417

ii)      Reagan, Bush page 417-418

iii)    Planned parenthood v. Casey 1992 page 417

iv)    Rehnquist court page 417

v)      “unduly burden” page 417

vi)    “reasonable regulations” page 417

vii)  Nebraska and partial birth page 418

viii)Stenberg v. Carhart 2000 page 418

ix)    Bush and partial birth page 418

d)     Sexual orientation rights page 418

i)        Bowers v. Hardwick 1986 page 418

ii)      Boy Scouts page 418

iii)    Lawrence v. TREATMENT 2003 page 418

iv)    Kennedy, Rehnquist, and Thomas page 418

v)      Romer v. Evans 1996 page 418

5)     Rights of persons accused of crimes page 418-424

6)     Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures page 418-422

a)     4th amendment page 418-422

i)        Search warrant page 419

ii)      Probable cause page 419

iii)    General search warrants page 419

iv)    “expectation of privacy” page 419

v)      Warrantless searches in public places page 419

vi)    “probable cause” page 419

vii)  Deadly force page 419

viii)“halt or I’ll shoot” page 419

ix)    Detention page 419

x)      Terry v. OH 1968 page 419

xi)    Stop and frisk page 419

xii)  Border searches page 419

xiii)Reasonable cause page 419

xiv) Plan view exception page 419

xv)   Exigent circumstances page 420

xvi) Automobile exception page 420

xvii)           Foreign agents page 420

xviii)         Foreign intelligence surveillance court page 420

xix) Patriot act of 2001 page 420

xx)   Racial profiling page 421

xxi) Bush, terrorists page 421

xxii)           Blood and urine tests page 421

xxiii)         2002 supreme court vote page 421

xxiv)         The exclusionary rule page 421

xxv)           Mapp v. OH 1961 page 421

xxvi)         Police misconduct page 421

xxvii)       Good faith page 421

b)     The right to remain silent page 421

i)        5th amendment page 421

ii)      Immunity page 421

c)      The Miranda warning page 421

i)        Miranda v. AZ 1966 page 421

ii)      Custodial interrogation page 422

iii)    Crime control and safe street act of 1968 page 422

iv)    Dickerson v. US 2000 page 422

v)      Rehnquist page 422

d)     Fair trial procedures page 422-423

i)        Franknfurter page 422

ii)      The right of counsel page 422

iii)    Ashcroft page 422

iv)    Indictment page 422

(1)   Grand jury page 422

(2)   4th amendment page 422

(3)   True bill, indictment page 422

(4)   Plea bargain page 423

(5)   “cop a plea” page 423

v)      Trial page 423

(1)   Speedy and public trial page 423

(2)   6th amendment page 423

(3)   Petit jury page 423

(4)   Impartial jury page 423

(5)   Preemptory challenges page 423

e)     Sentencing and punishment page 423-424

i)        8th amendment page 423

ii)      Cruel and unusual punishment page 423

iii)    3 strikes and you’re out page 423-424

iv)    Appeals and double jeopardy page 424

v)      The death penalty page 424

(1)   Ten year moratorium page 424

(2)   Rehnquist court page 424

(3)   Reinstated 1976 page 424

(4)   DNA test page 424

(5)   Cruel and unusual punishment page 424

(6)   2002 ruling page 424

(7)   “national consensus” page 424

7)     How just is our system of justice page 424-427

a)     Too many loopholes? page 424-425

i)        Write of habeas corpus page 425

b)     Too unreliable? Page 425-427

i)        Trial by jury page 425

ii)      “Mr. prejudice and Miss sympathy page 425

iii)    Jury nullification page 425

iv)    Civil War page 425

c)      Too discriminatory? Page 427

d)     Unfair to minorities? Page 427

i)        Community policing page 427

8)     The supreme court and civil liberties page 427-428

a)     Judges page 427

b)     Jackson page 427



Timeline rights to life, liberty, and property page 410

Pic naturalized citizens page 410

Requirements for naturalization page 411

Pic Ellis Island page 413

How should the US government deal with undocumented aliens? Page 414

Inability to keep out aliens and immigration policies page 415

Pic enemy combatants page 416

Estelle Griswold page 417

Pic abortion protesters and supporters page 418

Pic police stop page 419

Do you think crime is a very big problem? Page 420

Pic metal detectors page 421

Pic Miranda rights page 422

Pic political cartoon wiretapping page 423

The death penalty around the world page 425

Renewed debate over the death penalty page 426

Political cartoon constitution rights page 427



Naturalization – a legal action conferring citizenship on an alien.


Dual citizenship – citizenship in more than one nation.


Right of expatriation – the right to renounce one’s citizenship.


Property rights – the rights of an individual to own, use rent, invest in, buy, and sell property.


Contract clause – clause of the constitution (article I, section 10) originally intended to prohibit state governments from taking actions that adversely affects property rights; no longer interpreted so broadly and no longer constrains state governments from exercising their police powers.


Eminent domain – power of a government to take private property for public use; the US constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensations for property so taken.


Regulatory taking – government regulation of property so extensive that government is deemed to have taken the property by the power of eminent domain, for which it must compensate the property owners.


Due process – established rules and regulations that restrain people in government who exercise power.


Procedural due process – constitutional requirement that governments proceed by proper methods; places limits on how governmental power may be exercised.


Substantive due process – constitutional requirement that governments act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; places limits on what a government may do.


Search warrant – a writ issued by a magistrate that authorizes the police to search a particular place or person, specifying the place to be searched and the objects to be seized.


Racial profiling – police targeting of racial minorities as potential suspects of criminal activities.


Exclusionary rule – requirement that evidence unconstitutionally or illegally obtained be excluded from a criminal trial.


Immunity – exemption from prosecution for a particular crime in return for testimony pertaining to the case.


Grand jury – a jury of 12 to 23 persons who, in private, hear evidence presented by the government to determine whether persons shall be required to stand trial. If the jury believes there is sufficient evidence that a crime was committed, it issues an indictment.


Indictment – a formal written statement from a grand jury charging and individual with an offense; also called a true bill.


Plea bargain – agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense.


Petit jury – a jury of 6 to 12 persons that determines guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action.


Double jeopardy – trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government; forbidden by the constitution.


Community policing – assigning police to neighborhoods where they walk the beat and work with churches and other community groups to reduce crime and improve relations with minorities.





Chapter 17 – equal rights under the law


Declaration of independence page 430

Equality and liberty page 430

“we hold these truths” page 430

Judaism and Christianity page 430

Natural rights page 430

Human rights page 430

Civil rights page 431

Civil liberties page 431

Abuse by government, through government, or by fellow citizens page 431


1)     Equality and equal rights page 432

a)     Equality of opportunity page 432

b)     Equality of starting conditions page 432

c)      Individual achievement page 432

d)     Affirmative action page 432

e)     Equality of results page 432

f)        Safety net page 432

2)     The quest for equal justice page 433-441

a)     Racial equality page 433-436

i)        Civil war page 433

ii)      Segregation and white supremacy page 433

iii)    Reconstruction page 433

iv)    13th, 14th, and 15th amendments page 433

v)      WWI page 433

vi)    Great depression page 433

vii)  Migration to north page 433

b)     Slow government response page 433

i)        1930’s and WWII page 433

ii)      Brown v. Board of education 1954 page 433

iii)    Truman and Eisenhower page 433

iv)    1957 filibuster page 434

c)      A turning point page 435-436

i)        “southern problem” page 435

ii)      Rosa Parks page 435

iii)    Boycott page 435

iv)    MLK page 435

v)      Sit ins, freedom rides, live ins page 435

vi)    Birmingham, AL 1963 page 435

vii)  Kennedy page 435

viii)Johnson page 435

ix)    Civil rights act of 1964 page 435

d)     Riots and reaction page 435-436

i)        Watts 1965 page 435

ii)      Detroit 1967 page 435

iii)    Advisory committee on civil disorders page 435

iv)    Kerner commission page 435

v)      Reagan, Bush, and Clinton page 436

vi)    No child left behind page 436

e)     Women’s rights page 436-437

i)        Seneca falls women’s rights convention 1848 page 436

ii)      Civil war page 436

iii)    14th and 15th amendments page 436

iv)    women’s suffrage page 436

v)      western states page 436

vi)    Wyoming page 436

vii)  “petticoat provision” page 436

viii)WWI page 436

ix)    19th amendment 1920 page 436

x)      ERA page 436

xi)    Virginia military institute page 436

xii)  Civil rights act page 436

xiii)Quid pro quo sexual harassment page 436

xiv) Thomas and Hill page 437

xv)   Hostile environment page 437

xvi) Glass ceiling page 437

f)        Hispanics page 437

i)        Proposition 187 page 437

ii)      Majority-minority states page 437

g)     Asian Americans page 438-439

i)        Model minority page 438

ii)      Chinese Americans page 438

(1)   1847 page 438

(2)   Chinatowns page 438

(3)   Locke page 438

iii)    Japanese Americans page 438-439

(1)   Hawaii 1860’s page 438

(2)   California 1880’s page 438

(3)   Japanese and Korean exclusion league 1905 page 438

(4)   SF board of education page 138

(5)   WWII page 438

(6)   Reagan page 439

iv)    Other Asian Americans page 439

(1)   Korean middle class page 439

(2)   Filipinos page 439

(3)   Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia page 439

(4)   Boat people page 439

v)      Native Americans page 439-440

(1)   Reservations page 439

(a)   Nations page 439

(b)   Gambling page 439

(c)   Right to vote page 439

(d)   Assimilation 1887-1934 page 439

(e)   Bureau of Indian affairs of the department of the interior page 439

(f)     Native American rights fund (NARF) page 439

(g)   Campbell page 440

3)     Equal protection of the laws – what does it mean? Page 441-445

a)     Equal protection clause 14th amendment page 441

b)     Due process clause 5th amendment page 441

c)      Unreasonable page 442

d)     Constitutional classifications and tests page 442-445

i)        Rational basis test page 442

(1)   Roemer v. Evans 1996 page 442

ii)      Suspect classifications and strict scrutiny page 443

(1)   Compelling governmental interest page 443

iii)    Quasi-suspect classifications and heightened scrutiny page 443

(1)   Important governmental objectives page 443

(2)   Brennan page 443

(3)   Women page 443

(4)   Civil rights act 1964 page 444

iv)    Poverty and age page 444

(1)   O’Connor page 444

(2)   Gray power page 444

(3)   State employees page 444

v)      Fundamental rights and strict scrutiny page 444-445

(1)   Guaranteed by constitution page 444

e)     Proving discrimination page 445

i)        Disparate impact page 445

ii)      Equal laws not equal results page 445

iii)    Washington v. Davis 1976 page 445

iv)    Intent to discriminate page 445

v)      Voting rights act 1965 page 445

vi)    Effects or intentions page 445

4)     Voting rights page 445-447

a)     Article I, section 4 times, places and manner page 445

b)     Article II, section 2 page 445

c)      14th, 15th, 19th, and 26th amendments page 445

d)     protecting voting rights page 445-446

i)        smith v. Allwright 1944  page 445

ii)      white primary 1944 page 445

e)     15th amendment and racial gerrymandering page 445

i)        24th amendment and poll tax page 446

ii)      14th amend 1966 page 446

iii)    “error in spilling” page 446

iv)    literary tests page 446

v)      soap bubbles and Peking daily page 446

f)        the voting rights act of 1965  page 446-447

i)        civil rights act of 1964 page 446

ii)      Selma, AL page 446

iii)    MLK page 446

iv)    Johnson page 446

v)      Voting rights act of 1965 page 446

vi)    Section 2, section 5 page 446

vii)  Dilution page 446

g)     Redistricting and the 1990 census page 446

i)        Shaw v. Reno 1993 page 446

ii)      Majority-minority districts page 47

iii)    2000 and 2004 presidential elections page 447

5)     education rights page 447-449

a)     Jim Crow laws page 447

b)     Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 page 447

c)      Separate but equal page 447

d)     The end of separate but equal – Brown v. board of education of Topeka, KS 1957 page 447-448

i)        Segregation is itself discrimination page 447

ii)      Title VI civil rights act of 1964 page 447

iii)    “race, color, or national origin” page 448

e)     from segregation to desegregation – but not yet integration page 448-449

i)        2 kinds of schools page 448

ii)      official sanctioned – de jure segregation page 448

iii)    social and economic – de facto segregation page 448

iv)    white flight page 449

6)     rights of association, accommodations, jobs, and homes page 449-451

a)     association page 449-450

i)        5th and 14th amendments page 449

ii)      Douglas page 449

iii)    Zone of privacy page 449

iv)    Private clubs page 450

v)      BSA v. Dale 2000 page 450

b)     Accommodations page 450-451

i)        1883 supreme court page 450

ii)      commerce clause page 450

iii)    title II – places of public accommodation page 450

(1)   reconstruction page 450

(2)   civil rights act of 1964 page 450

iv)    title VII – employment page 450-451

(1)   equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC) page 450

(2)   class action suit page 450

(3)   1965 presidential executive order page 451

(4)   underutilization page 451

v)      the fair housing act and amendments page 451

(1)   1948 supreme court and restrictive covenants page 451

(2)   1968 fair housing act page 451

(3)   Mrs. Murphy boardinghouses page 451

7)     the affirmative action controversy page 451-455

a)     Harlan page 451

b)     Affirmative action page 452

i)        Reverse discrimination page 452

ii)      Bakke page 452

iii)    Title VI and civil rights act of 1964 page 452

iv)    University of CA regents v. Bakke 1978 page 452

v)      Quota page 452

c)      After Bakke – refinements and uncertainty page 452-453

i)        Richmond v. Croson 1989 page 453

ii)      Rehnquist court page 453

iii)    O’Connor page 453

d)     California’s proposition 209 and other plans page 453-454

i)        University of CA page 453

ii)      Underrepresented groups page 453

iii)    Perry page 453

e)     Reaffirming the importance of diversity page 454-455

i)        University of CA v. Bakke page 454

ii)      Gratz page 454

iii)    Selection index page 454

iv)    Gratz v. Bollinger 2003 page 454

v)      Souter, Stevens, Ginsberg, and Rehnquist page 454

vi)    Special efforts page 455

vii)  O’Connor page 455

viii)Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas page 455

8)     Equal rights today page 455-456

a)     Farmer page 455

b)     Underclass page 455



Timeline equal rights under the law page 432

Pic Rosa parks page 434

Pic demonstrators Birmingham page 434

Pic MLK page 435

Pic Susan b Anthony and Elizabeth cady Stanton page 436

Percentage of bachelor’s degrees awarded to men page 437

Pic WWII Japanese internment camps page 438

Major civil rights laws page 439

Racial and ethnic identification page 440-441

Do you agree that homosexuality is a way of life that should be accepted by society? Page 442

Canadian courts forbid discrimination against homosexuals page 443

Pic of school in poor district page 444

Pic of Marshall, Hayes, nabrit page 448

Pic Boston protesters page 449

Pic affirmative action supporters page 452

Affirmative action, grutter v. Bollinger 2003 page 454

Pic Gratz page 454

Affirmative action, quotas page 455




Natural rights – the rights of all people to dignity and worth; also called human rights.


Affirmative action – remedial action designed to overcome the effects of past discrimination against minorities and women.


Women’s suffrage – the right of women to vote.


Equal protection clause – clause in the 14th amendment that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. By interpretation, the 5th amendment imposes the same limitation on the national government. This clause is the major constitutional restraint on the power of governments to discriminate against persons because of race, national origin, or sex.


Due process clause – clause in the 5th amendment limiting the power of the national government; similar clause in the 14th amendment prohibiting state governments from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.


White primary – primary operated by the democratic party in southern states that, before republicans gained strength in the “one party south”, essential constituted an election; ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944)


Racial gerrymandering – the drawing of election districts so as to ensure that members of a certain race are the minority in a district; ruled unconstitutional in Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960)


Poll tax – payment required as a condition of voting; prohibited for national elections by the 24th amendment (1964) and ruled unconstitutional for all elections in Harper v. Virginia board of elections (1966)


Literacy test – literacy requirement imposed by some states as a condition of voting, generally used to disqualify blacks from voting in the south; now illegal.


Majority-minority district – a congressional district created to include a majority of minority voters; ruled constitutional so long as race is not the main factor in redistricting.


Jim Crow laws – state laws formerly pervasive throughout the south requiring public facilities and accommodations to be segregated by race; ruled unconstitutional.


De jure segregation – segregation imposed by law


De factor segregation – segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.


Commerce clause – the clause of the constitution (article I, section 8, clause 3) that gives congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.


Class action lawsuit – lawsuit brought by an individual or a group of people on behalf of all those similarly situated.


Restrictive covenant – a provision in a deed to real property prohibiting its sale to a person of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement of such deeds is unconstitutional.