Interest groups exist to make demands on government. The dominant interest groups in the United States are economic or occupational, but a variety of other groups--ideological, public interest, foreign policy, government itself, and ethnic, religious, and racial--have memberships that cut across the big economic groupings; thus, their influence is both reduced and stabilized.
Movements of large numbers of people who are frustrated with government policies have always been with us in the United States. Blacks, women, Native Americans, and the economic underdogs have, at various times, organized themselves into movements.
Elements in interest-group power include size, resources, cohesiveness, leadership, and techniques, especially the ability to contribute to candidates and political parties, as well as the ability to fund lobbyists. But the actual power of an interest group stems from the manner in which these elements relate to the political and governmental environment in which the interest group operates.
For many decades interest groups have engaged in lobbying, but these efforts have become far more significant as groups become more deeply involved in the electoral process, especially through the expanded use of political action committees (PACs). Interest groups also take their messages directly to the public through mass mailings, advertising campaigns, and cooperative lobbying.
Lobbying is any activity aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact. The term "lobbying" was not generally used in the United States until the middle of the nineteenth century. The word not only refers to the lobby or hallway outside the House and Senate chambers but also to the hotel lobbies in Washington where petitioners and agents of influence congregated. A Senator or member of Congress coming out of his chamber of hotel might be accosted politely by several lobbyists seeking to influence his vote on some decision. Despite their negative image, lobbyists perform useful functions for government, such as providing information pertinent to decision-making, educating and mobilizing public opinion, and even preparing and testifying about legislation.
Concern for PACs centers on their ability to raise money and spend it on elections on behalf of endorsed candidates, typically incumbents. This concern has led to proposals to ban PACs or to more strictly limit their authority. Yet their existence and rights are protected by our First Amendment.
By law, PACs are limited in the amount of money they can contribute to any single candidate in an election cycle. The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 limits PACs to $5,000 per election and $10,000 per election cycle (primary and general elections). PACs can host fund-raisers attended by other PACs to boost their reputation with the candidate, or they can collect money from several persons and give them to the candidate as a packet in a practice called "bundling."
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 banned most forms of soft money, leaving individuals and PACs free to contribute $10,000 to state or local party committees for voter registration or mobilization. The law also restricted issue advocacy in the periods before primary and general elections.
1) Swift Boat Veterans for Truth page 130
2) Timeline interest groups 132
3) The 527’s page 132
4) PACs giving money 2000-04 page 134
5) Top 10 all time donors 1989-2004 page 135
6) Union memberships US vs. other countries page 136
7) Labor force and union membership 1930-2005 page 137
8) Unions in Sweden page 137
9) Influence of trade unions, good or bad? Page 138
10) Environmental groups and how they do business page 141
11) People and politics – Stephen Moore page 146
12) Should corporations and unions be limited in funding parties and running issue ads? Page 152
13) The effectiveness of interest groups activity in elections page 153
14) Thinking it through – unions and corporations vs. courts on funding page 153
15) Top soft money donors 2001-2002 page 156
16) Total PAC contributions to federal candidates page 157
17) Interest Groups past and present the mischiefs of faction pages 132-133
a) A nation of interests page 133
i) Interest groups
ii) Special interest groups
b) Social movements page 133
18) types of interest groups pages 133 – 141
a) formal organization not required
i) economic – business and labor
ii) ideological or single issue
iii) public interest
iv) foreign policy
b) types of interest groups page 134
i) interest groups pluralism
c) economic interest groups 134 – 139
i) business 134 – 135
(1) big and small
ii) trade and other associations 135
(1) trade associations
(2) chamber of commerce
d) labor 135 – 138
i) American farm bureau
iii) Open shop
iv) Closed shop
v) Free rider
vi) Committee on political education (COPE)
e) Professional associations 139
i) American medical association
ii) American bar association
iii) Government regulation
f) Ideological or single interest groups 139
i) Right to life
iv) Christian coalition
g) Public interest groups 139 – 140
i) Common cause
ii) Ralph Nader
iii) Public interest research groups (PIRGs)
iv) Tax exempt public charity
h) Foreign policy interest groups 140
i) Council on foreign affairs
ii) American committee on Africa
iii) American-Israel political action committee (AIPAC)
i) Public sector interest groups 140
i) Cities and states hire lobbyists
ii) National governors association
iii) National education association (NEA)
j) Other interest groups140 –141
i) American legion
ii) Knights of Columbus
iii) Environmental groups
19) Characteristics and power of interest 141 –147
a) Groups vary in their goals, methods, and power
i) Most important group characteristics size, resources, cohesiveness, leadership, and techniques
b) Size and resources 141 – 142
i) Active membership more important than size
ii) How to get members
iv) AARP – drug bill 2003
v) Spread – small area vs. large area
c) cohesiveness 142
i) 3 member types
(1) One member – Small number of leaders devote much time and effort and money
(2) Few hundred – people intensely involved. ID with aims, attend meetings, pay dues, do a lot of legwork
(3) Thousands – members in name only. Do not participated and cannot be counted on to vote
ii) Organizational structure
d) Leadership 142
e) Techniques 143
i) Political weapons and targets
ii) Publicity and mass media appeals 143
(1) Business people have advantage
(2) Organized labor
(3) Email and internet
iii) Mass mailing 143
(1) Computerized and targeted
iv) Influence on rule making 143 – 144
(1) Federal register – proposed regulations
v) Litigation 144 – 145
(3) Amicus curiae briefs – friend of the court
(4) Protest movements
(5) 1999 WTO riot
vi) Election activities 145
(1) Non partisan
(2) Labor – democrats
(3) Business – republicans
(4) Not usually effective
(5) Paycheck protection – 1998 2000
(6) Business and industry political action committee (BIPAC)
vii) Forming a political party 145 – 147
(1) Free spoil party 1840’s slavery
(2) Prohibition party 1860’s
(3) Green party
(4) Can sometimes upset balance
(a) NM 1997
viii)Cooperative lobbying 147
(1) Leadership conference on civil rights and the people for the American way
(2) Business roundtable (BRT)
20) The influence of lobbyists 147 – 149
a) Lobby and lobbyists used around mid 19th century
i) Comes from the lobby or hallway outside House and Senate chambers
ii) Also refers to the lobby of the Old Willard Hotel where presidents dined
b) Who are the lobbyists 147 – 148
ii) Revolving door – government job to an interest group job
iii) Illegal for former national government employees to directly lobby the agency they came from
iv) Iron triangle – mutually dependent relationships
v) Elected officials usually generalist depending on staff
vi) Issue networks – similar to iron triangle with some differences
c) What do lobbyists do 148 – 149
i) Most important thing they provide is money for reelection
ii) Third house of congress – interests and money
iii) Provide political info
iv) Provide substantive info
v) Provide technical assistance on bill drafting
vi) Provide technical assistance on amendment drafting
vii) Provide persons to testify
viii)Provide formulate questions
ix) Prescription drug benefit
x) Citizens for better Medicare
21) Money and politics 149 – 153
a) Political action committees (PACs)
c) Independent expenditures
d) Hard money
e) Soft money
f) Issue advocacy
g) Federal election campaign act of 1971 (FECA)
h) Bipartisan campaign reform act of 2002 (BCRA)
j) the growth of PACs 150
k) link 2 vital techniques of other political aid to politicians and persuading office holders to vote the “right way”
l) how PACs invest their money page 150-151
m) soft money and issue advocacy page 151
n) BCRA and interest group electioneering page 151-153
22) The effectiveness of interest group activity in elections page 153-154
23) Curing the mischiefs of faction – two centuries later
a) Federal and state regulation page 1554-155
b) The effects of regulation page 155-158
Faction – term used by the founders of the country to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
Interest group – a collection of people who share some common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and employ tactics such as lobbying to achieve their goals.
Movement – a large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies.
Open shop – a company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.
Closed shop – a company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
Free rider – an individual who does not join a group representing his interests yet receives the benefit of the influence the group achieves.
Federal Register – official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
Amicus curiae brief – literally, a “friend of the court” brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
Lobbying – engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
Lobbyist – a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
Revolving door – employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
Iron triangle – a mutually dependant relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and sub committees, and government agencies that share a common policy concern.
Political action committee (PAC) – the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties.
Bundling – a tactic of political action committees where by they collect contributions from like minded individuals (each limited to $2,000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a “bundle”, thus increasing their influence.
Independent expenditures – the supreme court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure.
Hard money – political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term “hard money”.
Soft money – money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and get out the vote efforts.
Issue advocacy – unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not sues words like “vote for” or “vote against” although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates.
527 group – a political group organized under section 527 of the IRS code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activates so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election where a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted. 527 groups were important to the 2000 and 2004 elections.
Quid pro quo – something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
The framers of the Constitution sought to establish a stable constitutional system that would allow the complete control of the majority. False
Politics is best seen as a battle between the special interests on one side and "the people" on the other. False
The Bill of Rights guarantees the development of movements by protecting free assembly, free speech and due process. True
Interest group pluralism undermines democratic values and concentrates power in a single group. False
Single-issue groups include the American Federation of Teachers and the Chamber of Commerce. False
Tax-exempt charities like the American Cancer Society and the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. are not considered public interest groups. False
An association consisting of 3 million supporters concentrated in a few states will usually have more influence than another group consisting of 3 million supporters spread out in a large number of states. False
Associations express their views to the courts by filing amicus curiae briefs in cases in which they are not direct parties. True
A lobbyist is an employee of an association that tries to influence policy decisions in all three branches of our government. True
Issue networks include more players than iron triangles. True
A political action committee is the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties. True
The number of PACs has decreased dramatically since reform in the 1970s. False
Bundling is a tactic of political action committees whereby they collect contributions from like-minded individuals and present them to a candidate or political party. True
The greatest concern in regulating interest groups is avoiding threatening their constitutional liberties. True
The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 resulted in the increase of registered lobbyists by fifty times the number before 1995. False
A(n) __________ is a collection of people who share some common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends.
A(n) __________ is a large body of people interested in a common issue that seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies.
A(n) __________ is an official document, published every weekday that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
__________ is engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
__________ is an employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
__________ is a mutually supporting relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and government agencies that share a common policy concern.
A(n) __________ is the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties.
Political Action Committee
__________ is a tactic of political action committees whereby they collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle," thus increasing their influence.
__________ is money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes.
__________ is something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
quid pro quo
__________ is a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
A(n)__________ is an individual who does not join a group representing his or her interest yet receives the benefit of the influence the group achieves.
________ ads are not subject to the same disclosure requirements and contribution limitations as candidate campaign advertising.
Political scientists prefer to use the neutral term " ___________" to describe a collective group of individuals that speaks for some but not all of us.
Which of the following is not a grouping of broad types of interest groups:
ideological, political parties, and single issue
Businesses with similar interests in government regulations and other issues join together as ______ to influence government.
When a person benefits from the work of an interest group without joining or contributing, this condition is referred to as the _________problem.
Which of the following is an example of a professional organization?
The National Education Association
A public interest group created to campaign for electoral reform and for making the political process more open is _________.
Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding the American-Israel Political Action Committee?
It lobbies for action in support of Palestinian causes.
How do associations motivate potential members to join them?
Organizations provide incentives to attract members.
Which of the following is the biggest hindrance to a mass membership organization?
Which of the following has allowed interest groups to target specific groups with personalized letters?
What would be the best source to find new and proposed regulation of executive departments and regulatory agencies?
the Federal Register
What have groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union's Women's Rights Project and National Organization for Women used to pursue their objectives?
A mutually supporting relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and government agencies that share a common policy concern are called ___________.
To members of Congress, the single most important thing lobbyists provide is __________.
Which of the following is illegal?
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes..
Unions and corporations are not allowed to:
pay for an election ad two months before a general election.
The 1925 Federal Corrupt Practices Act, the 1946 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act can be characterized as:
not very effective.
Political parties are essential to democracy--simplifying voting choices, organizing the competition, unifying the electorate, bridging the separation of powers and fostering cooperation among branches of government, translating public preferences into policy, and providing loyal opposition.
Political parties help structure voting choice by nominating candidates to run for office. Before the advent of direct primaries, in which voters determine the party nominees, the parties had more control of who ran under their label. States determine the nomination rules. While most states employ the direct primary, some use a caucus or mixed caucus system where more committed partisans have a larger role in the decision of who gets nominated.
American parties are moderate. Bringing factions and interests together, they are broad enough to win the presidency and other elections. Third parties have been notably less successful. One reason for this is our single-member district, winner-take-all election rules. In systems with proportional representation or multimember districts, there is a greater tendency for more parties and the need to assemble governing coalitions across parties.
American parties have experienced critical elections and realignments. Most political scientists agree the last realignment occurred in 1932. In recent years, there has been divided government and an increase in the number of persons who call themselves Independents. This trend is sometimes called dealignment, but most Independents are closet partisans who vote for the party toward which they lean.
For the last 50 years it has been routine to have divided government, with one party in control of the presidency and the other in control of one or both houses of Congress. Because of the partisan shift in the South toward Republicans, Republicans won control of the White House, often with Democrats controlling one or both houses of Congress. Successful presidents have found ways to cope with divided government and enact important parts of their agenda.
Parties are governed by their national and state committees, and the focal point of party organization is the national and state party chairs. When the party controls the executive branch of government, the executive (governor or president) usually has a determining say in selecting the party chair. With the rise of soft money in recent elections, parties now have more resources to spend on politics.
Parties are vital in the operation of government. They are organized around elected offices at the state and local levels. Congress is also organized around parties, and judicial and many executive branch appointments are based in large part on partisanship.
Parties are also active in the electorate, seeking to organize elections, simplify voting choices, provide a line between the people and government, broker diverse positions, and strengthen party identification.
Frequent efforts have been made to reform our parties. The Progressive movement saw parties, as then organized, as an impediment to democracy and pushed direct primaries as a means to reform them.
Following the 1968 election, the Democratic Party took the lead in pushing primaries and stressing greater diversity in those elected as delegates. Republicans have also encouraged broader participation, and they have improved party structure and finances.
Compared to some European parties, ours remain organizationally weak. There has been some party renewal in recent years as party competition grew in the South and the parties themselves initiated reforms.
1) Timeline political parties page 162
2) How important is it to live in a country where honest elections are held? Page 167
3) Israel’s coalition government page 168
4) Vote for 3rd party candidates a waste? Page 170
5) Is voting symbolic? What do you think? Page 171
6) Facts about American political parties page 172
7) Differences in what republicans and democrats stood for 1984-2002 page 177
8) People and politics – Blaise Hazelwood page 179
9) Changing face – portrait of the electorate page 181
10) Party identification 1950’s-2002 page 183
11) Presidential vote by party page 183
12) How party identification is measured page 184
13) Voting behavior of partisans and independents 1992-2002 page 184
14) Effects of the 2002 campaign finance reforms page 187
15) Schattschneider page160
16) What parties do for democracy page 162-170
a) Party functions 162-165
i) Organize the competition page 162-163
ii) Unify the electorate page 163
iii) Help organize government page 163
iv) Translate preferences into policy page 164-165
v) Provide loyal opposition page 165
b) The nomination of candidates page 165-167
c) Party systems 167-168
d) Minor parties: persistence and frustration page 169-170
17) Brief history of American political parties page 170-174
a) Our first parties page 170-171
b) Realigning elections page 171-173
i) 1824: Andrew Jackson and the democrats page 171
ii) 1860: the civil war and the rise of the republicans 171-172
iii) 1896: a party in transition page 172
iv) 1932: F. Roosevelt and the new deal alignment page 172-173
c) divided government
d) the 2000, 2002, and 2004 elections: into the new century page 173-174
18) American parties today pages 175-184
a) Parties as institutions page 175-178
i) National party leadership page 175-176
ii) Party platforms page 176-177
iii) Parties at state and local levels page 1777-178
b) Parties in government page 178-180
i) In the legislative branch page 178
ii) In the executive branch page 178-179
iii) In the judicial branch page 179
iv) At the state and local levels page 180
c) Parties in the electorate page180
i) Party registration page 180
ii) Party activists page 180
d) Party identification page 181-182
e) Partisan realignment and dealignment page 182-184
19) Are the political parties dying? Pages 185-188
a) Reform among the democrats page 185
b) Reform among the republicans page 185-186
c) Campaign finance reform and political parties page 186-188
Political party – an organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy.
Party column ballot – type of ballot that encourages party line voting by listing all of a party’s candidates in a column under the party name.
Office block ballot – ballot on which all candidates are listed under the office for which they are running making split ticket voting easier.
Nonpartisan election – a local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots.
Patronage – the dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party.
Honeymoon – period at the beginning of a new president’s term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and congress, usually lasting about six months.
Caucus – a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
Party convention – a meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office.
Direct primary – election in which voters choose party nominees.
Open primary – primary election in which any voter, regardless of party may vote.
Crossover voting – voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another party
Closed primary – primary election in which only persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote.
Proportional representation – an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
Winner take all system – an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.
Minor party – a small political party that rises and falls with a charismatic candidate or, if composed of ideologies on the right or left, usually persists over time; also called a third party.
Libertarian party – a minor party that believes in extremely limited government. Libertarians call for a free market system, expanded individual liberties such as drug legalization, and a foreign policy of non-intervention, free trade, and open immigration.
Green party – a minor party dedicated to the environment, social justice, nonviolence, and a foreign policy of non-intervention. Ralph Nader ran as the party nominee in 2000.
Reform party – a minor party founded by Ross Perot in 1995. It focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability. It has recently struggled with internal strife and criticism that it lacks an identity.
Realigning election – an election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties.
Laissez-faire economics – theory that opposes government interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Keynesian economics – theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Divided government – governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one of both houses of congress.
National party convention – a national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
Party registration – the act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote.
Party identification – an informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
Dealignment – weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents.
One of the most important functions of parties is to organize the competition by designating candidates to run under their label. True
Civil service regulation has outlawed all patronage in the federal government. False
In states with a closed primary, any voter, regardless of party, can participate in whichever primary he or she chooses. False
Multiparty parliamentary systems make governments unstable as coalitions form and collapse while two-party systems produce governments that end to be stable and centrist. True
Realigning elections are turning points that define the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties during periods of historic change in the economy and society. True
The election of 1896 was a converting realignment because it reinforced the Democratic majority status that had been in place since 1860. False
Progressive reforms included civil service reform, the direct primary election, and the Seventeenth and Nineteenth Amendments. True
Since 1953, divided government has been in effect twice as long as one-party control of both legislative and executive branches of the federal government. True
As more Senate seats have become "safe" for incumbents, the Senate had become less moderate and the home of partisan ideological clashes to a greater extent than the House of Representative or the White House. False
State law determines the composition of the state committees and sets rules regulating them. True
Civil service law regulates cabinet-level appointments and ambassadorships around the world and those making campaign contributions are forbidden from holding these positions. False
Partisan identification has been very unstable for more than four decades and the basic nature of the party system has changed dramatically. False
Television, radio, the Internet, and telephones have strengthened the role of candidates and lessened the importance of parties. True
Rank-and-file voters, party organizations, and the party in government display strong partisan ties. False
Reforms instituted by the Democrats in the late 1960s include greater use of direct primaries for the selection of delegates to the national convention. True
A(n) __________ is an organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy.
A(n) __________ is a local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots.
__________ is the dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party.
A(n) __________ is a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decided the platform.
A(n) __________ is a meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office.
A(n) __________ is an election in which voters choose party nominees.
A(n) __________ is an election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.
A(n) __________ is a primary election in which only persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote.
A(n) __________ is an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
A(n) __________ is an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.
__________ is a theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
__________ is a theory that states that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Which of the following statements about political parties is incorrect?
Americans trust political parties.
The _________ permits party leaders to play a role in the selection of nominees.
caucus or convention system
Because parties have great difficulty building coalitions on controversial issues like abortion or gun control, candidates and parties ___________.
avoid defining the election in single-issue terms.
What is an effect of American parties being unable to discipline members who express views contrary to those of the party?
Party leaders cannot guarantee passage of their program.
To involve more voters and reduce the power of the bosses to pick party nominees, states adopted the ___________ primary.
Multiparty systems favors the existence of minor parties because:
major parties need them to form coalition governments.
The ___________ party focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability.
Which of the following is not a reason for the creation of our first political parties?
Political parties were called for in Article II of the Constitution.
Which of the following characterizes the realigning election of 1824.
Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren created a winning combination of regions, interest groups, and political doctrines.
_________ economics asserts that government can influence the direction of the economy through fiscal and monetary policy.
Which of the following groups of states did George W. Bush win in the presidential election of 2002?
Which of the following stands is not found in the Democratic Party Platform of 2000?
The party supports a human life amendment to the Constitution of the United Sates.
What has been the main criticism of the spending of soft money by state parties?
It became a way for national parties to legally spend soft money.
Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding recent judicial nominees.
Bill Clinton placed more emphasis on ideology than gender and race in the selection process.
__________ value winning elections and understand that compromise and moderation may be necessary to reach that objective.
When do most people acquire their party identification?
Dealignment suggests that people have become _________.
Which of the following statements is not a criticism of the American party system?
Parties tend to undermine democratic institutions.
Amendments in 1979 to the Federal Campaign Act had the effect of:
using soft money to promote the election or defeat of specific candidates.
Which of the following is a large donor to Republicans?
Public opinion is a complex combination of views and attitudes that individuals acquire through various influences from childhood on. Public opinion takes on qualities of stability, fluidity, intensity, latency, consensus, or polarization--each of which is affected by people's feelings about the salience of issues.
The American public has a generally low level of interest in politics, and most people do not follow politics and government closely. The public's knowledge of political issues is poor.
Those Americans who are interested in public affairs can participate by voting, joining interest groups and political parties, working on campaigns, writing letters to newspaper editors or elected officials, or attempting to influence how another person will vote, or even protesting.
Better educated, older, and party- and group-involved people tend to vote more; the young tend to vote the least. Voter turnout tends to be higher in national than in state and local elections, and higher in presidential than in midterm elections.
The National Voter Registration Act of 1993, called the "Motor-Voter" bill, allows people to register to vote while applying for or renewing a driver's license. The act seems to have led to the registration of at least a million more voters. When it was debated in Congress, the bill was favored by the Democratic majority and opposed by Republicans. Since there are more Democratic identifiers in the population, the Republicans thought that higher registration would favor Democrats. However, neither party seems to have benefited, as most of the new registrants registered as Independents.
Party identification remains an important element in the voting choice of most Americans. It represents a long-term attachment and is a "lens" through which voters view candidates and issues as they make their voting choices. Candidate appeal, including character and record, are another key factor in voter choice. Voters decide less frequently to vote on the basis of issues.
1) Swing votes page 191
2) Timeline public opinion, participation, and voting page 192
3) How you ask the question matters page 194
4) Differing opinions on gay marriage page 195
5) Is the internet a change for the better? Page 198
6) Changes in public perception after 9/11 page 199
7) Comparison of opinion of president Bush and attitude on abortion over time page 200
8) Political participation and awareness in the US page 203
9) People and politics – Steve Rosenthal and America coming together (ACT) page 203
10) Changes in voting eligibility since 1970 page 205
11) Percentage of African Americans registered to vote 1980-2000 page 205
12) Registration and voting in the worlds democracies page 207
13) Voter turn out in presidential elections 1800-2004 page 206
14) Voter turnout by demographic factors page 209
15) Why people don’t vote page 210
16) Should we allow voting by mail and on the internet? Page 212
17) Convenience of voting – frequent and electronic page 213
18) Which quality matter most in the 2004 vote for president page 214
19) Public opinion page 192-202
a) What is public opinion? Page 193-194
i) Taking the pulse of the people page 193-194
ii) Intensity page 194
iii) Latency page 194
iv) Salience page 194
b) Who do we get our political opinions and values? Page 194-197
i) Family page 196
ii) Schools page 196-197
iii) Mass media page 197
iv) Other influences page 197
c) Stability and change in public opinion page 197-199
d) Public opinion and public policy page 199-201
e) Awareness and interest page 201
20) Participation – translating opinions into action page 202-203
21) Counting votes 203-211
a) Voting page 204-205
b) Registration page 205-206
c) Motor voter page 206
d) Turnout page 206-208
e) Who votes? Page 208-210
f) How serious is nonvoting? Page 210-211
22) Voting choices page 211-214
a) Voting on basis of party page 211-212
b) Voting on basis of candidates page 213-214
c) Voting on basis of issues page 213-214
Public opinion – the distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population.
Political socialization – the process most notably in families and schools by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
Attentive public – those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
Voter registration – system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form.
Australian ballot – a secret ballot printed by the state.
Turnout – the proportion of the voting age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote.
Candidate appeal – how voters feel about a candidates background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities.
Public opinion is defined as the distribution of individual preferences for, or evaluations of, a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population. True
Sociologist emphasize the pervasive influence of groups over their members while psychologist focus more on the developmental stages within individuals that prompt them to be joiners or loners. True
Studies of 18- to 24-year-olds indicate that school courses and activities give young people the skills needed in elections and democratic institutions. False
Numerous studies conclude that if we know a person's religious affiliation or ethnic background, we know his or her political opinions. False
About 15 percent of Americans are able to recall the name of the congressional candidates from their districts. True
Due to the nature of American democracy, boycotts, picketing, sit-ins, and marches are all illegal. False
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests, eased registration requirements, and provided for the replacement of local election officials with federal registrars in some areas. True
The "Motor Voter" bill has benefited the Democrats more than the Republicans and few have registered as Independents. False
In 1960, turnout of people eligible to vote stood at 36 percent and grew to 65 percent in 2000. False
Due to their dependence on social welfare programs, poor people are more likely to vote than any other group. False
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of self-declared Independents since the mid-1970s. True
Fluctuations in party identification appear to come in response to economic conditions and political performance, especially the president. True
Over the last 50 years party and issues have been more important than candidate appeal or the lack of it. False
In the 2000 election, voters that indicated that the candidate quality that mattered most was being "honest or trustworthy" preferred Bush over Gore. True
In every election, voters have elected the incumbent candidate in times of peace and prosperity. False
__________ is the distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population.
__________ is the process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
The __________ is that section of the public engaged in and following public affairs.
__________ is a system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form.
__________ is an informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
__________ is how voters feel about a candidate's, background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities.
______ means the proportion of the population that holds a particular opinion.
Which of the following is not a requirement for scientific sampling?
An equal number of Republicans and Democrats must be surveyed.
According to sociologists, what is the most important socializing agent?
What was a spin-off of the TV coverage of the presidential vote count in Florida in 2000?
Attention was directed to voting systems and the electoral college.
Which of the following events caused greater confidence in government and interest in public affairs?
terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon
Which of the following is incorrect regarded elected officials and public opinion.
Candidates use polls to determine the sure outcome of an election.
People who know and understand how the government works are called the _____ public.
About ___ percent of the American public are individuals called part-time citizens who participate selectively in elections, voting in presidential election but usually not in others.
What is the most typical political activity of Americans?
Which of the following Constitutional amendments prohibited the use of poll taxes in federal elections.
What was the purpose of voter registration?
It was designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form.
Why does voter registration discourage voting?
Voters have to fill out a form weeks before an election and when moving to a new address.
Which of the following is not a provision of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993?
It allows states to purge the list of registered voters because of nonvoting.
Which of the following produces the lowest voter turnout?
local or municipal elections
As ______ increases so does the propensity to vote.
Which of the following is not a reason for nonvoting in the United States?
Several states place restrictions on certain groups' right to vote.
Political scientists have identified three main elements on the voting choice: party identification, candidate appeal, and issues. According to the text, which is least important?
Assessment of a candidate's character, honesty, consistency, and "family values" relate to _______.
Of the following qualities, voters indicated that the candidate's _________ mattered the most in the 2000 election for president?
Voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected is called ___________ issue voting.
American elections, even presidential elections, are largely governed by state law and administered by local election officials. Following the 2000 elections, governments at all levels have begun to look for ways to improve the system.
Our electoral system is based on winner-takes-all rules, typically with single-member district or single-officeholder arrangements. These rules encourage a moderate two-party system. That we have fixed and staggered terms of office adds predictability to our electoral system.
The Electoral College is the means by which presidents are actually elected. To win a state's electoral votes, a candidate must have a plurality of votes in that state. Except in two states, the winner takes all. Thus candidates cannot afford to lose the popular vote in the most populous states. The Electoral College also gives disproportionate power to the largest states and has the potential for defeat of the popular-vote winner, as it did in 2000.
Many congressional, state, and local races are not seriously contested. The extent to which a campaign is likely to be hotly contested varies with the importance of the office and the chance a challenger has of winning. Senate races are more likely to be contested, though most incumbents win.
The race for the presidency actually takes place in three stages: winning enough delegate support in presidential primaries and caucuses to secure the nomination, campaigning at the National Party Convention, and mobilizing voters for a win in the Electoral College.
Even though presidential nominations today are usually decided weeks or months before the national party conventions, these conventions still have an important role in setting the parties' direction, unifying their ranks, and firing up enthusiasm. Speakers who are highlighted are positioned to pursue nominations in future years.
Because large campaign contributors are suspected of improperly influencing public officials, Congress has long sought to regulate political contributions. The main approaches to reform have been: (1) imposing limitations on giving, receiving, and spending political money; (2) requiring public disclosure of the sources and uses of political money; and (3) giving governmental subsidies to presidential candidates, campaigns, and parties, including incentive arrangements. Present regulation includes all three approaches.
Loopholes in federal law - including soft money, issue advocacy, and independent expenditures -and rising costs of campaigns have led to declining competition for congressional seats and increasing dependence on PACs and wealthy donors. Campaign finance reform in 2002 may help to close some of these loopholes but money will still be a central concern in the system.
The present presidential selection system is under criticism because of its length and expense and because it seems to test candidates for media skills less needed in the White House than the ability to govern, including the capacity to form coalitions and make hard decisions.
Reform efforts center on presidential primaries and the Electoral College as well as on voting methods and campaign finances.
1) Timeline – campaigns and elections 1781-2002 page 218
2) Important factors in winning and election page 219
3) Advantages and disadvantages of proportional representation page 220
4) 2004 battleground states page 221
5) corrupt political leaders big problem or no problem? Page 222
6) competitive house seats 1992-2004 page 223
7) seats lost by president’s party in midterm elections for the house of representatives and senate 1938-2002 page 224
8) us house incumbents reelected 1946-2004 page 225
9) rising campaign costs in general elections page 226
10) people and politics – Karl Rove page 230
11) soft money loophole in Japan page 235
12) when is an ad about an election? Page 236
13) congressional campaign committee soft money spending 1994-2002 page 236
14) frequent issue advertisers page 237
15) BRCAs new electioneering definition and free speech and limitations page 237
16) What BRCA does page 238
17) Jon Corzine page 239
18) Campaign financing in Britain and Canada page 240
19) Average campaign expenditures of candidates for the house of representatives 1998-2002 general elections page 241
20) PAC money favors incumbents page 242
21) Voter turnout in the 2004 presidential primaries page 243
22) Touch screen page 245
23) Recounts in elections page 217
24) Elections – the rules of the game 218-221
a) Regularly scheduled elections page 218
b) Fixed, staggered, and sometimes limited terms page 218
c) Term limits page 218-219
d) Winner take all page 219
e) The electoral college page 219
25) Running for congress page 221-227
a) House of representatives page 224-226
i) Mounting a primary campaign page 225
ii) Campaigning for the general election page 225-226
b) Senate page 226-27
26) Running for president page 227-234
a) Stage 1: the nomination page 227-230
i) Presidential primaries page 227-229
ii) Caucuses and conventions page 229
iii) Strategies page 229-230
b) Stage 2: the national party convention page 230-232
i) The party platform page 231
ii) The vice presidential nominee page 231-231
iii) The value of conventions page 232
iv) Nomination by petition page 232
c) Stage 3: the general election page 232-234
i) Presidential debates page 232-233
ii) The outcome page 233-234
27) Money in US elections page 234-243
a) Efforts at reform page 234-241
i) The federal election campaign act (FECA) page 235-236
ii) The bipartisan campaign reform act (BCRA) page 236-237
iii) Issue advocacy advertising page 237-239
iv) Candidates personal wealth page 239-240
v) Independent expenditures page 240-241
b) Continuing problems with campaign finance page 241-243
i) Rising costs of campaigns page 241-242
ii) Declining competition page 242
iii) Increasing dependence on PACs and wealthy donors page 242-243
28) Improving elections page 243-246
a) Reforming the nominating process page 243-244
b) Reforming the electoral college page 244-245
c) Reforming how we vote page 245-246
d) Reforming campaign finance page 246
Single-member district – an electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
Electoral college – the electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party’s candidate.
Safe seat – an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party’s candidates is almost taken for granted.
Coattail effect – the boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
Interested money – financial contributions by individuals or groups in the hope of influencing the outcome of an election and subsequently influencing policy.
Issue advocacy – promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate, and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation.
Elections for members of Congress occur on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of odd-numbered years. False
Seventeen states have imposed term limits for their state legislatures and more states limit the term of governors. True
Each state has as many electors as it has representatives in the United States House of Representatives. False
Many critics believe that the number of safe seats threatens constitutional democracy because elections are not performing their proper role. True
In mounting a primary campaign it is important for a candidate to build a personal organization and be very controversial. False
Turnover in the House of Representatives comes when incumbents die, decide to retire, or seek some other office. True
Due to many states having early presidential primaries, the contest for nomination is compressed into several weeks of intense activity. True
Delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions cast their ballots for their party's presidential nominee at the electoral college. False
Party conventions are important because it is an opportunity for candidates to define themselves in a positive way and for the party to heal itself after a decisive nomination battle. True
The Supreme Court ruled that legislatures may limit how much of their own money people can spend on their own campaign. False
The 2002 campaign finance reforms banned the use of corporate and union treasury funds for all electioneering, including issue advocacy. True
In the 2000 New Jersey U.S. Senate race, the incumbent was able to defeat Jon Corzine who spent $60 million of his own money to win the election. False
Voters in primaries are more influenced by candidates' personalities than their positions on the issues. True
The National Bonus Plan calls for all electoral votes to be awarded on a winner-take-all basis to the candidate with the most votes. False
The state of Florida is the only state that has encountered problems such as voter confusion over ballot formats. False
A(n) __________ is an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.
A(n) __________ is an electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
single member district
__________ is an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
The __________ is the electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates.
A __________ is an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
The __________ is the boost that candidates of the president's party get in an election because of the president's popularity.
A(n) __________ is a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
A(n) __________ is a meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state convention who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates or president and vice president.
national party convention
__________ is financial contributions by individuals or groups in the hope of influencing the outcome of an election and subsequently influencing policy.
__________ contributions to a state or local party for party-building purposes.
__________ is promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidates.
__________ is money spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office.
Which of the following is the incorrect fixed term for the office?
Senate - four years
Which of the following is a correct assessment of single-member districts?
Minor parties find it hard to win.
If no candidate gets the necessary majority of the electoral votes to win the presidency, the _______ decides the election.
House of Representatives
Which of the following presidents won the electoral college vote but not the popular vote?
George W. Bush
The franking privilege, the use of broadcast studios to record radio and television tapes to be sent to local media outlets and a large staff is an advantage of ______________.
___________ is when delegates to the national convention are allocated on the basis of the votes candidates win in the primary election.
Why does selection of the Republican presidential candidate by conservative partisans and the Democratic presidential candidate by liberal partisans pose a problem in the general election?
To win the general election, candidates have to win support from moderates.
How did the Bush-Cheney ticket in 2000 avoid the Constitutional prohibition against electors from voting for more than one person for president and vice president from the same state?
Cheny moved his official residence to Wyoming and registered to vote there.
The 2000 debates between George W. Bush and Al Gore resulted in __________.
reinforcing voters' prior choices
Which of the following is not a strategy used by reformers to prevent abuse in political contributions?
Removing limitations on giving, receiving, and spending political money.
Which of the following is not a provision of the 2002 campaign finance reform legislation?
Sets limits on the amount of their own money candidates can spend on their campaign.
Problems with accountability such as the amount of money spent or how the raise money is raised and other candidates getting blamed for attacks are problems associated with _________.
Proponents of unlimited issue advocacy claim that it should be protected as ____________.
Which of the following groups made independent expenditures mostly for the Republican Party?
National Rifle Association
Which of the following is not a continuing problem with federal election fund raising?
increasing visibility and competitiveness of challengers in House races
Why do PACs give little money to challengers of incumbents?
They do not wish to offend incumbents.
Why are caucuses better than primaries?
Caucuses can argue and persuade one another in small meetings.
A national presidential primary and regional primaries are proposed substitutes for _________.
state presidential primaries
What is the most frequently proposed reform of the electoral college system?
direct popular election
Both houses of Congress passed legislation providing federal funds to modernize how Americans vote after ________________.
problems with counting votes in Florida in 2000.
The news media include newspapers, magazines, radio, television, films, recordings, books, and electronic communications, in all their forms. These means of communication have been called "the other government" and "the fourth branch of government."
The news media are a pervasive feature of American politics and generally help to define our culture. The rise of new communications technologies has made the media more influential throughout American society. The news media provide a "linking" function between politicians and government officials and the public.
Our modern news media emerged from a more partisan and less professionalized past. The autonomy of the media from political parties is one of the important changes. Now journalists strive for objectivity and see themselves as important to the political process. They also engage in investigative journalism.
Broadcasting on radio and television has changed the news media, and most Americans use television and radio as primary news sources. The role of corporate ownership of media outlets, especially media conglomerates, has emerged in the past few years and raises questions about media competition and orientation.
The influence of the mass media over public opinion is significant yet not overwhelming. People may not pay much attention to the media or believe all they read or see or hear. They may be critical or suspicious of the media and hence resistant to it. People tend to "filter" the news in part through their political socialization, selectivity, needs, and ability to recall or comprehend the content of the news.
The media are criticized as biased both by conservatives (who charge that the media are too liberal) and by liberals (who claim that the media are captive of corporate interests and major advertisers). Little evidence exists of actual, deliberate bias in news reporting.
A major effect of mass media news is agenda setting--that is, determining what problems will become salient issues for people to form opinions about and to discuss. The media are also influential in defining issues for the general public.
Presidential campaigns are dominated by media coverage during both the pre- and post-convention stages. One effect of media influence is that most people seem more interested in the contest as a "game" or "horse race" than as an occasion for serious discussion of issues and candidates. Another effect has been the rise of image-making and the media consultant.
Perhaps more than any other invention, television has changed the character of American politics. The average American watches 4.3 hours per day, and most homes have at least two sets. While television is primarily an entertainment medium, most Americans use it for news as well. Most Americans watch some kind of television news network on a daily basis. Television provides instant news from around the country and the globe, permitting citizens and leaders alike to observe, firsthand, the events of September 11 or a looming war with Iraq. This instant coverage increases the pressure on world leaders to respond quickly to crises, permits terrorists to gain widespread coverage of their actions, and elevates the role played by the president in both domestic and international politics.
The press serves as observer of and participant in politics, as watchdog, agenda setter, and check on the abuse of power, but it rarely follows the policy process to its conclusion.
1) Janet Jackson’s boobs and indecency page 248
2) Timeline – the media and American politics 1780’s-2004 page 250
3) People and politics – Sean Hannity page 251
4) A less than free press in Russia page 258
5) Is the influence of news organizations very good or very bad? Page 259
6) Partisanship and preferred news source page 260
7) Partisanship and news source credibility page 260
8) The changing face of journalists page 262
9) Free air time for candidates and parties page 264
10) Free air time pro and con page 264
11) Candidate image page 266
12) Presidential press conferences joint and solo sessions 1913-2004 page 269
13) The influence of the media on politics page 250-254
a) The pervasiveness of television page 252-253
b) The persistence of radio page 253
c) The continuing importance of newspapers page 253-254
d) The internet page 254
14) The changing role of the American news media page 254-257
a) Political mouthpiece page 255
b) Financial independence page 255-256
c) “objective journalism” page 256
d) the impact of broadcasting page 256
e) investigatory journalism page 256-257
f) media conglomerates page 257
g) regulation of the media page 257
15) mediated politics page 257-264
a) the media and public opinion page 258-260
b) factors that limit influence on public opinion page 260-261
i) political socialization page 260
ii) selectivity page 261
iii) needs page 261
iv) recall and comprehension page 261
v) audience fragmentation page 261
c) the media biased? Page 261-263
d) public opinion page 263
i) agenda setting page 263
ii) issue framing page 263
16) the media and elections page 264-268
a) choice of candidates page 264
b) campaign events page 264-265
c) technology page 265
d) image making and media consultants page 265-266
e) media and voter choice page 266-268
i) the horse race page 267-268
ii) negative advertising page 267
iii) information about issues page 267
iv) making a decision page 267
v) election night reporting page 267-268
17) the media and governance page 268-269
a) political institutions and the news media page 268-269
Mass media – means of communication that reach the mass public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication.
News media – media that emphasizes the news.
Fairness doctrine – Federal Communications Commission policy that required holders of radio and television licenses to ensure that different viewpoints were presented about controversial issues or persons; largely repealed in 1987.
Selective exposure – the process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases.
Selective perception – the process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages.
Horse race – a close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.
It is an unwritten rule of television that news programs never have entertainment value, and entertainment programs never convey news. False
Because of the reliance of television and radio, campaigns now focus on image and slogans rather than issues. True
The top circulating national newspaper is the New York Times. False
Early American newspapers were created to serve political parties but retained journalistic independence. False
The penny press appealed to less politically aware readers with human-interest stories and reports on sports, crime, trials, and social activities. True
An example of investigatory reporting is the work of Robert Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post who helped to uncover the Watergate conspiracy. True
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) forbids the ownership of newspapers and television stations by the same company. False
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1987 and 2000 has strengthened the fairness doctrine. False
Politicians see the media as an adversary and thus avoid developing good relations with reporters. False
People interpret political messages based on political socialization, selectivity, need, and the individual's ability to recall and comprehend the message. True
The growth of cable television and news media like the Web has weakened the ability of any one media source. True
The line between objective journalism and partisan politics has been preserved because of the media's refusal to hire former government officials. False
Throughout American history and in the present, newspaper publishers are the most powerful force in influencing election outcomes. False
The press revealed Franklin Roosevelt's wheel chair and braces in photographs published in newspapers and magazines in the 1930s. False
Newspapers and television have more influence in determining the outcome of general elections than of primaries. False
__________ is a means of communication that reaches the mass public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television, films, recordings, books, and electronic communication.
__________ are media that emphasize the news.
__________ is the process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
__________ is the process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases.
__________ is the process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages and disregard the rest.
A __________ is a close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.
Due to the rise of cable television and the emergence of the Web, the broadcast networks (CBS, NBC, and ABC) now attract ____ of the viewing public for television news.
Which of the following do a better job of covering politics and devote more attention to it?
Which of the following Web-based news sources was the first to break the story of President Clinton's affair with White House intern Monica Lewinski?
The Drudge Report
What did politicians find advantageous in the use of radio?
It provided a means to bypass the screening of editors and reporters.
_________ founded the Fox network, owns twenty two television stations in the United States, the Family Channel, and 20th Century Fox.
Which of the following is not a role of the media in modern America?
judges the candidates in terms of party affiliation and platform rather than character and competence
An example of how the ability of television to present images and communicate events has influenced American public opinion is _____________.
galvanizing the antiwar movement in the United States during the Vietnam War
The planning of presidential events and "photo opportunities" are planned with the _________ and its format in mind.
____________ is defined as when people perceive what they want to in media messages and disregard the rest.
What is not a reason for people forgetting stories or failing to comprehend their importance?
the media fails to present stories of importance and concentrates on gossip and entertainment
What is a check on media bias?
News coverage involves many reporters and a host of editors.
Journalists are more ________ than the population as a whole.
Which of the following is not an important influence of print and broadcast media on public opinion?
News coverage is likely to be more influential in _______.
a city council contest
Why do many events organized by campaigns fail to receive attention from reporters?
There are too many competing news stories.
A benefit of television in campaigning is that _____________.
it has made politics more accessible to more people.
A primary responsibility of a _________ is to present a positive image of the candidate and to reinforce negative images of the opponent.
Small sample groups of people who are asked questions about candidates and issues in a discussion setting are called __________.
When does TV coverage on election night affect the turnout of voters?
in an election in which one candidate appears to be winning by a large margin
The __________branch of government has the most focus of the news media.